The WTO dispute settlement system “is the result of changes in rules, procedures and practices that developed over nearly half a century under the 1947 GATT.”  In 1994, WTO members agreed to the Agreement on Dispute Settlement Rules and Procedures (DSU), attached to the final act signed in Marrakech in 1994.  Dispute settlement is seen by the WTO as a central pillar of the multilateral trading system and a “unique contribution to the stability of the global economy.”  WTO members agreed that if they believe their colleagues are breaking trade rules, they will use the multilateral system to settle disputes instead of acting unilaterally.  Studies show that the WTO has stimulated trade and that without the WTO, trade barriers would be higher.  The WTO has strongly influenced the text of trade agreements, as “almost all recent preferential trade agreements (EEAs) explicitly refer to the WTO, often dozens of times in several chapters… In many of these EDPs, we find that essential parts of the language of the treaty – the majority of a chapter at a given time – are literally copied from a WTO agreement.  In the UN`s Goal 10, WTO agreements have also been cited as instruments for reducing inequality.  The safety valve was designed as a special protection mechanism (SSM) that allows developing countries to impose additional (temporary) safeguard duties in the event of abnormally low import increases or imports. Removing infrastructure bottlenecks was another important element of the trade reform package. In the telecommunications sector, considerable progress has been made in private sector participation in value-added services such as mobile, mobile and pagan services. A telecommunications regulator was established in March 1997, which will separate regulatory functions from policy and operational functions. New guidelines allow private participation in ports, investments on the basis of B.O.T., and already authorisation for a private container terminal worth 70 billion euros has been granted. Similarly, new guidelines for private investment in the motorway sector have been announced, simplified and environmental release and action participation have been facilitated. Approval of a rapid rail transport system (MRTS) in Delhi has been granted and the cities of Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mumbai and Calcutta have proposed substantial improvements to their public transport system by implementing/expanding rail transit systems.
A new policy of private investment in civil aviation has been announced, authorizing 40% equity for national airlines. The WTO services negotiations follow discussions on the so-called positive list approach and the negative list approach. In the first part, members present all the services for which they commit to removing tariff or non-tariff barriers. It involves opening markets and granting national treatment to foreign service providers in relation to the points mentioned in the list. On the other hand, the latter approach concerns services that maintain barriers to trade. The West vehemently advocates moving from the positive list approach to the negative list approach. India is against this idea, because it will open up almost the entire Indian service sector to the grace of Western multinational giants. 156 “India – Export measures for certain raw materials (to the EC),” WT/DS120/1 (11 March 1998); “India – Import Restrictions (by the EC),” WT/DS149/1 (28 October 1998); “India – Measures to Combat Tariffs (according to the EC),” WT/DS150/1 (31 October 1998); and “India – Import restrictions maintained under the 2002-2007 export and import policy (according to the EC),” WT/DS279/1 (23 December 2002); “India – Measures to import and sell wines